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We will also explore some of Turing's refutations of these criticisms and the vision the famous computer scientist had for AI. In most cases, the classical question of AI is phrased as follows: Can a computer think? While this question is deeper and more metaphysical than it first appears, it is rather abstract and is difficult to answer precisely. For example, what would a computer have to do in order for an observer to be convinced that is it actually thinking and thus intelligent? Alan Turing decided to rephrase the question and instead proposed a distinct criterion for deciding if a computing machine could think.

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The Imitation Game also called the Turing Test is a contest of equivalence, where an interrogator interacting with a human and a machine — or a computer — is challenged to distinguish between the two. Turing defined the game in Computing Machinary and Intelligence as the following:. Turing establishes a scenario where an interrogator is placed outside of a room that contains a man and woman; the goal of the man is to dupe the interrogator into misidentifying who is the man and who is the woman.

Turing then proposes that the man be replaced with a computer and the game run in exactly the same manner as before. Turing also places an important stipulation on this game: The communication between the interrogator and the man, the interrogator and the computer, and the interrogator and the woman is done through typewritten messages — or even better, through an intermediary. This ensures that the speaking ability of the man and the woman does not unfairly disadvantage the computer i. What is interesting about this game is that it does not necessarily determine the ability of the computer to think, but rather, imitate a human so effectively that another human cannot surmise the difference between a human and the computer.

In essence, this test is structured to determine if a computer can effectively replace a human without an observer distinguishing the substitution. This approach was so groundbreaking that it still remains one of the most popular instruments for measuring the effectiveness of AI and is still hotly debated to this day.

Although the Imitation Game is profound in its conception, it is by no means perfect.

In fact, it is still fiercely debated whether or not the Turing Test is actually an effective means of measuring the intelligence of a computer. The main criticism of the Turing Test is that the test does not actually measure the thinking ability of a computer, but rather, it measures the conversational ability of a computer — or at best, the ability of a computer to replace a human rather than intelligently think like one. Apart from this main concern, there are also other criticisms that were raised about both AI and the Imitation Game, in particular, some of which were directly addressed by Turing and others that began to sprout after his death in Even at the time of writing, Turing was aware of the criticisms of his test — and more generally, AI.

In Computing Machinery and Intelligence , Turing addresses nine of the most popular objections against the conception of a computing machine that could sufficiently mimic the behavior of humans:. While Turing is thorough in addressing the criticisms known at the time, some his defenses rest upon disputable presuppositions. Furthermore, even after his passing in , the debate continued to intensify, bringing with it an entirely new set of critiques.

Even in modern times, criticisms of this veteran experiment continue to be brought to the fore. In this thought experiment, Searle devised the following scenario:.

Turing's imitation game : conversations with the unknown

In essence, Searle claims that the computer in the Turing Test is not thinking at all; it is blindly running through a series of instructions. According to Searle, this is far from cognition, and had a human replicated these steps — as devised in his Chinese Room — an observer would hardly claim that the human was intelligent. Instead, the observer would claim that the human could have shut his brain off and simply walked through the motions of the program, responding with the expected results in much the same way as the computer could.

AI is one of the most prominent topics in modern software, and for good reason. Although some put too much hope and too much tragedy in AI, it does promise to bring about some great advancements, including cures for diseases, replacement of mundane tasks, and solutions for previously-impossible problems. Even with this modern enthusiasm, Alan Turing's near year-old Imitation Game still remains at the forefront of AI, and its implications are likely to increase as AI comes to fruition in the following years.

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Huma Shah. This is something that occurs fairly often. Both conversations lasted for five minutes although clearly the one on the left was fuller. The judge correctly identified that the left-side entity was a machine Ultra Hal but was unsure about the other entity, which was in fact an English-speaking male. We hope that this chapter has served to give you a taste for what lies ahead.

Possibly you were able to identify all of the entities correctly from the conversations listed. On the other hand you may have found yourself agreeing with the interrogator, thereby making a few mistakes along the way. Whatever the case, it will be interesting to see your reaction to later conversations. Perhaps those that we have shown already will give you some pointers as to what to expect, what pitfalls to avoid and ways in which interrogators can get fooled.

Interestingly, when you do not have the answer in front of you it is not that easy to realise that you have actually been fooled. For example consider the actual case of a philosopy professor and his students who took part in nine actual Turing tests in and then wrote a paper Floridi et al. In a later paper Shah andWarwick, in the same journal it was, however, explained that the philosopher and his team had correctly identified the hidden entities in only five of the nine tests.

In the other four cases they had, without realising it, misclassified humans as machines and machines as human! Finally we have a look at how conversation systems have matured over the years and how some of the first practical tests actually went. These have involved a large number of human participants filling the roles of both interrogator and hidden human foil. At the same time we have been fortunate to work with the developers of the best conversation systems in the world.

Therefore we have devoted Chapter 9 to interviews with those developers in order to give some ideas as to what is important, and what not, from their perspective. Three chapters 7, 8 and 10 cover in detail the three sets of experiments performed by the authors. These were in fact held in parallel with an academic meeting on the subject headed by Baroness Susan Greenfield and other well-known experts. As a result the participants were able to flit between the meeting and the ongoing tests.

Finally, Chapter 10 describes the series of experiments that took place in June at the Royal Society in London, of which Turing was a Fellow, to mark the 60th anniversary of his death. Aamoth, D. Interview with Eugene Goostman, the fake kid who passed the Turing test. June 9, Chomsky N.

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In: Parsing the Turing Test, R. Epstein et al. Hayes, P. Turing test considered harmful. Floridi, L. Minds and Machines 19 1 , — Philipson, A.

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John Humphrys grills the robot who passed the Turing test — and is not impressed. Shah, H. Hidden interlocutor misidentification in practical Turing tests. Minds and Machines 20 3 , — Deception-detection and machine intelligence in practical Turing tests. Can Machines Talk? Comparison of Eliza with Modern Dialogue Systems. Computers in Human Behavior. Volume 58, — Warwick, K. Assumption of knowledge and the Chinese room in Turing test interrogation. AI Communications 27 3 , — Passing the Turing test does not mean the end of humanity. Cognitive Computation 8 3 , — She has a Ph.

She organised the and Loebner Prize for Artificial Intelligence and co He has carried out ground-breaking research in artificial intelligence, control and robotics which has been reported widely around the world. Professor Warwick h Keep up with the latest from Cambridge University Press on our social media accounts. Share this Article today Tweet. Turing's Imitation Game Turing's Imitation Game, commonly known as the Turing Test, is fundamental to the science of artificial intelligence.