Our faith is sometimes better represented by the despair of Holy Saturday than the confidence of Easter Sunday, says a writer and Christ seeker. Schoolchildren in central London staged a sitdown protest over climate change near Downing Street in February Photo by Ben Gingelge. In this interview, an icon in Christian philosophy talks about the wonder, growth and pain in his professional and personal life. To close the final chapter of his new memoir, renowned philosopher and theologian Nicholas Wolterstorff tells how he became a student while discussing his own book with prison inmates.
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Kimchi, a staple in Korean cuisine, is made from salted, fermented vegetables, frequently cabbage. With the help of the Holy Spirit, churches can build community, welcome the stranger, love our neighbors, and break down walls of oppression and injustice, writes a theologian and professor. How do we rightly read the Bible in the midst of the political issues of our time? A New Testament scholar calls for a renewed theological imagination, filled with generosity, hope and grace. Many other documents not listed here, of lesser importance or centrality, also form part of the debates.
Christian Philosophy: The s French Debates Between and , important debates regarding the nature, possibility and history of Christian philosophy took place between major authors in French-speaking philosophical and theological circles. The Historical Background and Development of the Debates Without providing a comprehensive historic overview for the s Debates, several historical developments allowing context are to be considered at this juncture. Positions Against Christian Philosophy a.
In certain respects the rationalist position mirrors the theologist one: [W]here philosophy is, it is dangerous that Christianity should be. As Gilson points out, neo-Scholastics retain some role for Christian faith, but one extrinsic to their philosophical activity: [A]ll of them agree with Saint Thomas that truth cannot contradict truth and that, consequently, what faith finds agrees substantially with what reason proves.
The neo-Scholastic position in effect adopts wholesale rationalist assumptions about human reason, philosophy and Christian faith, with the consequence that [a]ccording to these neo-Scholastic philosophers, there cannot be Christian philosophy any more than there can be for a pure rationalist, because within the philosophical order, grasped with precision and insofar as philosophical, their rationalism is a pure one.
Philosophy, like human reason, remains fundamentally incapable of addressing an absolutely transcendent Christian revelation of Christ, which alone provides knowledge of and relation to God: There never actually has been a philosophia christiana , for if it was philosophia it was not christiana , and if it was christiana it was not philosophia.
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Second, he identifies reason, and rationality as such, with an idealization of Greek philosophy: For the Hellene, the true object of philosophy was to discover order, or the cosmos: each being and principally the directive forces of nature, souls, and God must be defined by the exact, and ne varietur, place that it occupies in this eternal order. Besides the fact of the existence of numerous Christian communities disagreeing on fundamental issues, the history of the Catholic magisterium reveals an absence of precise limit in the philosophical domain this magisterium oversees, and a lack of consistency in its censure, and these make Christian philosophy in the first sense seem to be something completely arbitrary.
There is a third possibility where we would have to recognize that there is something it would be appropriate to call, without equivocation and without compromise, a Christian philosophy. Brunschvicg identifies this possibility with Malebranche arguably, Blondel would also fit this description , and concedes to him the privilege and the honor of being the representative, naturally not the sole representative, but the typical and essential representative of a Christian philosophy Bul. Neo-Scholastic Positions Certain neo-Scholastic philosophers and theologians in particular those representing the Louvain school , while regarding Thomism as the truest and most adequate philosophy available, argued against the possibility or desirability of an explicitly Christian philosophy.
From the latter, Christianity can orient or aid the process of study, the development of a philosophical position or doctrine, and does so in and for the individual philosopher: Christian doctrines do not enter as such into the objective exposition of a philosophy, or then that philosophy would cease to be a philosophy. Positions For Christian Philosophy a. Second, he charges Blondel with a lack of clarity, blurring lines between philosophy and theology, thus transfer[ring] to the heart of a philosophy what holds true of an apologetics In its nature, however, philosophy is a pure abstract essence.
He clarifies: Christian philosophy is not a determinate body of truths, although, in my opinion, the doctrine of St. Conceptualism maintains philosophical doctrines, as different as they may be, ultimately aim at sealing themselves off in closed, sufficient, and exclusive systems; these systems organize themselves with and terminate in concepts, and all that does not succeed in being raised into concepts repulses philosophy.
Against conceptualism, Blondel proposes another possibility: must philosophy end up, whatever the level of its development may be, in recognizing how it is normally incomplete, how it opens in itself and before itself an empty space prepared not only for its own ulterior discoveries and on its own ground, but for illuminations and contributions whose real origin it is not and cannot become? These spaces are not simply philosophical voids: [W]e do not remain in the presence of a black hole, of an ocean for which neither ship nor sail would seem possible.
One of these contributions was raising an additional problem for rationalist or neo-Scholastic opponents of Christian philosophy: If it was admitted that Christianity has had no positive influence on philosophical development, this would entail saying that it has never actually been able to be thought — for there is no thought worthy of that name that does not contribute to transforming all the other thoughts References and Further Reading This selective bibliography provides reference to only a portion of the literature either from or about the debates about Christian philosophy, positions developed, and issues involved.
Literature from the s Christian Philosophy Debates This list includes two types of literature: 1 books, articles, and conference reports directly part of the debates; 2 books, articles, and conference reports subsequent to the debates in which the positions of these participants are further developed. Paris: Cerf. Chenu, O. Baudin, Roland-Gosselin, O. Rabeau Blondel, Maurice.
Amsterdam : North Holland, , vol. Blondel, Maurice. Mendoza, Argentina: Univ. Nacional de Cuyo. Borne, Etienne. Gilson, Etienne. Christianisme et Philosophie. Paris: Vrin. Elements of Christian Philosophy. Garden City, N. Translated by A. Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages. The Unity of Philosophical Experience.
Anton Pegis, ed. Marcel, Gabriel. Katherine Farrer. New York: Harper. Maritain, Jacques. Approches sans entraves. Paris: Fayard. New York: Fordham University. Sertillanges, Antonin D.
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Le Christianisme et les philosophies Paris: Aubier. Van Steenberghen, Fernand. Paris: Nauwelaerts, Van Steenberghen, Fernand. Bois, Jacques.
Mehl, Roger. Reymond, A. Later published in Philosophie spiritualiste. Ricouer, Paul. Badoux, Bernard, O. Il problema della filosophia cristiana Brescia: Morcelliana. Chenu, Marie-Domnique. Coreth Emmerich, W. Neidl and G. Pfligersdorffer, eds. Christliche Philosophie im katholischen Denken des Jahrhunderts, v.
Donneaud, Henry, O. New York : Routledge. Floucat, Yves. Gouhier, Henri. La philosophie et son histoire. Henrici, Peter. Gedenkschrift Alwin Diemer , ed. Copleston, Frederick Charles, S. History of Philosophy, vol.
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